Today is Wednesday, July 31, the 212th day of 2019. There are 153 days left in the year.


On this date in:

1715: A fleet of Spanish ships carrying gold, silver and jewelry sinks during a hurricane off the east Florida coast; of some 2,500 crew members, more than 1,000 die.

1777: During the Revolutionary War, the Marquis de Lafayette, a 19-year-old French nobleman, is made a major-general in the American Continental Army.

1945: Pierre Laval, premier of the pro-Nazi Vichy government, surrenders to U.S. authorities in Austria; he is turned over to France, which later tries and executes him.

1961: IBM introduces its first Selectric typewriter with its distinctive “typeball.”

1970: “The Huntley-Brinkley Report” ends after nearly 14 years as co-anchor Chet Huntley signs off for the last time; the broadcast is renamed “NBC Nightly News.”

1971: Apollo 15 crew members David Scott and James Irwin become the first astronauts to use a lunar rover on the surface of the moon.

1991: President George H.W. Bush and Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev sign the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty in Moscow.

2008:Scientists report the Phoenix spacecraft has confirmed the presence of frozen water in Martian soil.

2018: Jury selection begins in the trial of Paul Manafort, President Donald Trump’s former campaign chairman accused of failing to report tens of millions of dollars in Ukrainian political consulting fees.


1994: Youngstown schools Superintendent Alfred Tutela, who is returning to his native Massachusetts to run the Wachusett school district, says he’s leaving Youngstown with his integrity intact.

Youngstown’s 202 patrol officers are being trained and certified in the use of pepper spray as a defensive weapon.

Mary Grace Scarsella and Samuel Paul Colucci will be honored as Italian woman and man of the year during the Greater Youngstown Italian Fest.

1979: Beatrice Sharp, 63, of Beaver Township, testifies that she got $7,000 from Dorothy DiBlasio and delivered it to Robert Parks, who is being tried for wounding Dr. Leo DiBlasio and fatally shooting his second wife, Patricia, and his receptionist-nurse, Mary Muffley, outside the doctor’s Girard office.

Homer S. Miller Jr., who has been working at the Canfield Fairgrounds since 1947, is retiring as grounds keeper at the end of the 1979 fair.

At the Kenley Players at E.J. Thomas Hall in Akron: Betty White stars in “Hello, Dolly.” Tickets are $5 and $7, with a $2 senior discount at Saturday’s matinee.

1969: Marine Pfc. Robert Ellis of Ford Avenue, Youngstown, is reported killed in action near Hoi Anm, Vietnam.

James M. Oliver, director of the Youngstown Area Community Action Program, resigns to become personnel director of the National Urban League in New York.

An early morning explosion, the second to occur on Market Street in the last three weeks, damages several cars in the Auto Plaza and shatters eight windows in two nearby homes. Black powder taped to a car set off the blast.

1944: Cpl. Donald McAllister, 32, of Struthers, a glider infantryman, is reported killed in action on D-Day.

Youngstown faces a shortage of bacon, which has disappeared from local markets. The reason is unknown; markets were glutted with pork three weeks ago.

Howard W. Latimer, a native of Warren, is identified by Transcontinental & Western Air Inc. as the co-pilot of the C-54 transport reported lost at sea with 26 people en route from Scotland to New York City.

Doctors at the bronchoscopic clinic at South Side Hospital remove a nickel that 18-month-old Patricia King of Warren had swallowed. The child had been coughing and getting increasingly ill for two days before the procedure.